Nadeem entered the country on a valid work permit to work as a chef in a restaurant. He is an 18 year old young man and has to support his family and extended family in his home country. Nadeem was approached in his town by a man called Nasir who was offering work to people in Ireland. To take up this offer Nadeem paid €18,000 to this man to organise the work and travel, which he borrowed from family, extended family and a money lender, He was informed that the terms of his employment were €250 to work 8 hours per day, 5 days a week including free accommodation and food. 

Nadeem believed he could pay back the money over a few years. He was told that after five years he would be an Irish citizen of Ireland and he could do what he wanted. He was told that this job would last for five years. The man arranged all the necessary papers (including a visa and work permit) and documents to enable him to come to Ireland and paid his air fare. 

Nadeem worked in the restaurant from 2pm to 2am, 6 days a week. He was allowed two 10-minute rest breaks a day. He worked about 72 hours a week and received roughly €2 per hour for his work. He had one day off per week, which was not fixed and was at the discretion of the other chef who was the cousin of the recruiter in their home county. He did not receive holidays or holiday pay. 

The accommodation provided with his employment was overcrowded, with seven people sharing a two-bedroom apartment; it had one bathroom and no kitchen. On arrival Nadeem had very little English and could not communicate with anyone outside of his own community. When Nadeem tried to ask for an increase in his salary, pointing out that he had already paid money to get the job and needed to pay back his debts, he was told by the restaurant owner that he would not get an increase as he did not speak English. Nadeem worked in this employment for one and half years before he was unfairly dismissed for being sick and unable to work for over a week. Nadeem was eventually arrested and detained for being undocumented, due to his employer not renewing his work permit. A support organisation for migrant workers assisted him in regularising his situation after a number of months of being homeless and destitute.